What is a Computer? Definition of Computer?

What is a Computer? Definition of Computer?

The computer is an electronic device which accepts data/instruction from a user, process/calculate the data/instruction according to predefined instruction (program), produces information, show result as output or store result for further processing.

History of Computer? Time Line of Computer? Evolution of Computer?


Abacus: The first device of calculation, used beads on rods for calculation.
Napier bones/rods (slide rule 1630): It is numbered rods which can be used for multiplication of numbers.
Cogs and Calculators: Blaise Pascal (1623–1666) invented the first mechanical calculator called the Pascaline. This machine had interlocking cogs (a gear wheel having teeth around outer edges).
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz(1646-1716) using cogs having “stepped drum” (a cylinder having teeth of increasing length around edges).
George Boole(1815-1864) invent a new branch of mathematics of Boolean algebra. Modern computer use binary code and Boolean algebra to make simple decisions by comparing the long string of zeros and ones.
Charles Babbage( 1791-1817) invent machine called Difference Engine. Babbage regards as “father of the computer” because his machine has input, a memory, a processor, and an output.
Ada Augusta (first programmer) worked on Charles Babbage and making his machine programmable.
First Generation computer (Vacuum Tubes 1930-1950) : Vacuum Tubes are glass tubes with circuit inside them, having no air inside them which protects the circuitry. In this computer vacuum tubes used as basic component for memory and circuitry for CPU. Example ENIAC, UNIVAC
Second Generation computer (Transistors 1956 -1963): These computers used circuit board filled with individual transistors and magnetic core memory.
Example IBM 1401, UNIVAC 1107.
Third Generation computer (Integrated Circuit 1964 -1971): 3rd generation computers used Integrated Circuit which is formed by electronic components such as transistor, resistor and capacitor on a small piece of semiconducting material that is called integrated circuit (also called chip or microchip). Example PDP-8, IBM 360, ICL 2900.
Fourth Generation (Microprocessors 1971 – Present): This generation computer used microprocessor which is a silicon chip having million of transistors. Example STAR 1000, CRAY-X-MP ( Super Computer).
Fifth Generation (Artificial Intelligence Present and beyond): These computers are used to develop Artificial Intelligence. They used parallel processing and superconductors. Example Intel P4, AMD Athlon.

How does computer work? The Process of working a computer system? How computer executes instructions?


Computer working understand in following steps
Input: The first step is input (command/instruction) give to the computer by using input devices mainly keyboard, mouse.
Processing: Second step is the processing is done on the input, processing (Arithmetic, Logic) operations performed on the data/ instruction given during Input.
Output: In the third step, the processed result is shown on the output device e.g. monitor or speaker.
Storage: The processed result is stored for later used on storage devices e.g. hard disk, floppy disk, USB etc.


Where it is used? Areas where computer use?


Now a day we are seeing the miracles of computer everywhere. Computer technology success is seen everywhere from toys to aero plane.
Computer technology is using in toys for kids playing, learning and motivation.
All most every household product e.g. cooking appliances, electrical machines, entertaining devices, fashion aid devices all using the computer technology, even computer is using for domestic work like preparing budget, list, and stock of products, and for social media communication.
In fields of education computer has vast range of uses for students, teachers, and administrative staff.
Students use the computer for learning, motivation, research, communication, and research.
Teachers use the computer for making results, reports, for research, preparing lectures, communication.
Computer used by administrative staff for making record, preparing stock, for security purpose, communication and integration of the organization.
In Market:
In market, stores and shops it is used for security purpose, for making goods stock, preparing list, display advertisement etc.

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