What is Computer Memory? Definition of Computer Memory?

What is Computer Memory? Definition of Computer Memory?

Computer memory is a physical hardware or integrated circuit chip that is used to store data and information temporarily or permanently.

History of memory? Timeline of memory?  Evolution of memory?

The history of memory start in 1890 when Charles Babbage invented Analytical Engine, it used punch card as memory.

In 1932 Gustav Tauschek invented Magnetic Drum as main memory of the computer.

The Freddie William introduced memory system which is known as Williams-Kilburn tube, the tube was first practical form of random access memory and stored 128 40-bit words.

The paper tape is a long strip of paper where holes punched to store data. It was a form of storage data used for input to computers in 1950.

In 1950 magnetic tape was first used in computer for record data. It was used in main frame computers. It stored data in a roll and a read write head is used to read and write.

In 1951 Jay Forrester applies the patent for magnetic core memory which is early form of Random Access Memory.

In 1953 the first computer (MIT’s Whirlwind) which used magnetic core memory. This memory used tiny magnetic rings (toroids), through which wires are threaded to read and write information.

In 1956 the first computer storage system (IBM Model 350) using first hard drive introduced. With 5 mega byte storage capacity and had 50 24-inch discs.

In 1962 the first Compact Audio Cassette was invented by Phillips. It was used in early mini computers for data storage and sound recording.

The first DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) was invented by Robert Dennard at IBM. It became standard memory chip for personal computer and replaced magnetic core memory. It used transistors to store bits of data.

In 1967 the first floppy disk was invented by Alan Shugart at IBM. The first floppy disk was 8-inch with 79,7 KB storing capacity. It was provided as alternative of hard drives which were very expensive at that time.

James T. Russell invented CD (Compact Disc) in 1982. CD is polycarbonate on which data is encoded using laser beam that etches tiny indentations (pits and bump). It storing capacity is greater than of floppy disk.

After the mutual collaboration of Sony, Phillip, Toshiba and Time Warner Inc DVD represented for sale in Japan in 1996. DVD (Digital Video Disk or Digital versatile disk) like CD use leaser technology to read data.

In mid 1990 with alliance of different companies (Apple, Intel, others…) developed the USB 1.0. The major purpose of USB was to develop data transfer system on different system for wide range of applications, support multiple devices using single ports, adding and removing devices while running of computer, faster transfer speed.

How memory works? Function of memory?

According to working computer memory classified into two categories

Primary memory (Main memory): It is fast, quickly accessible but short in capacity. There are two types of memory RAM and ROM.

RAM (Random Access Memory) ROM (Read only Memory)
It is temporary storage It is permanent in storage
It is volatile It is not volatile
Data lost when powered is off Data does not lose when power is
off
Computer read data quickly from RAM to run applications The program is stored in ROM that are required for initial boot.
RAM allows read and write ROM does not allow read and write
Data in RAM can retrieved and altered Data cannot altered or modified

Secondary memory (Auxiliary memory): It is not directly accessible by the computer.  The other features it is low cost, non volatile, highest storing capacity, slowest –access storage, available through input output channels, storing data for future use. It is of two types Sequential access and direct access memory.

Sequential Access Memory Direct Access Memory

The data stored and retrieved using serial process The data stored directly and retrieved by selecting and using any location
Data access speed is slow Data access speed is faster
It is time consuming It is time saving
Example Magnetic tape,
Paper tape
Example CD, DVD, USB, Hard Drive,
Floppy disk

Secondary memory (Auxiliary memory): It is not directly accessible by the computer.  The other features it is low cost, non volatile, highest storing capacity, slowest –access storage, available through input output channels, storing data for future use. It is of two types Sequential access and direct access memory.

Why Memory used? Importance of using memory? Benefits of using memory?

The importance of memory and its function are

  • Memory acts as the brain of the computer
  • It stores data and instructions in computer temporarily as well as permanently.
  • It provides working area for computer.
  • It makes work easier and faster.
  • It plays an important role in keeping the backup of the important data.
  • Memory also need for booting process of the computer.
  • The processing on data and instruction also resides inside the memory.
  • The memory made data quickly accessible for the CPU.
  • Memory optimizes the performance of the computer.
  • Multi-tasking also possible with the help of memory.

Where computer memory used?

Computer memory not only used in personal computer but also in laptop, palm top, tablet, mobile phones, computerized electronics like oven, ATM machines, industrial machines, aeroplane, submarine, ships, controlling systems etc . In short it is used where computer use for optimize the performance and facilitate the work.

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