What is Computer Software? Definition of computer software?
Computer software is a set of predefined instructions/ program that instruct the computer about a specific work (what to do? and how to do?).
When software developed? History of software? Evolution of software?
The term “software” was first proposed by Alan Turing in 1935.
The first computer program was an algorithm that was written by 1843 by Ada Lovelace a Mathematician. She wrote it to calculate a series of numbers for a physical computational machine developed by Charles Babbage.
In June 21, 1948 the very first piece of software was written by Tom Kilburn at University Manchester in England to run Manchester Small Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM). SSEM was built by Kilburn and his colleague Friddei Willaim. To perform the mathematical calculation SSEM programmed using machine code.
In the computing context it is first published by American statistician John W. Tukey in 1957.
The FORTRAN the first high-level language was published in 1957 for mathematical and scientific computing.
In 1962 COBOL was released by US Department of Defense in 1962 for business applications.
1n 1964 BASIC is developed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz. It is designed to enable the students of other field than Mathematics and Science to use the computer. It is general purpose high level language.
PASCAL is designed in 1968-1969 and published in 1970. The main objectives of it to promote the programming practice using data structure and structural programming.
C is called general –purpose language. It was developed by Dennis M. Ritchie at Bell Lab’s at 1972. The UNIX operating system development was the main objective to create C language.
How software works? Process of working of software?
This process is done in 3 steps which is called fetch-decode-execute cycle.
1: Fetch: A program is a series of sequence of machine language instructions. In this step instruction are fetch or read from memory into the CPU.
2: Decode: In this step computer decodes the instructions into binary number/ machine code to determine which operation should perform.
3: Execute: In last step it executes/performs the operation.
Where software used? Uses of software? Types of software according to use?
Today in the era of technology software use are almost everywhere. According to the usage point of view the software types are
1: System Software (System Management Programs, System Development Programs)
2: Application Software (General purpose software, Application Specific Software)
System Software: It provides interface between user applications and hardware.
It is basically designed to run computer hardware and application programs and manages the computer resources.
The user can interact directly with hardware functionalities like device manager and other utilities that found in control panel.
The System software is designed to develop and run applications and control the computer.
Example of system soft wares is operating software, utilities software, BIOS, Boot loaders, Kernal etc.
The range of application software is very wide. It is used for specific needs.
It is shortly abbreviated as “app” , all program run from your desktop computer, laptop, mobile phone, tablet and smart phone are application software.
According to purpose and use some application software are listed:
Application suits consists of multiple applications bundle together e.g. MS Office, LibreOffice and iWork. They are able to interact with each other with same features, functionality and user interface.
Enterprise soft wares are used by large organization and an essential part of a computer based information system. Some common soft wares are automated billing system, Customer Relation Management (CRM), Automated Billing Systems, Payment processing, Email marketing System etc.
Educational software are helpful in teaching , class room learning, virtual learning, self learning, class room management, language learning, research purposes, writing, composing, drafting, scientific, training software, courseware, assessment software , data recording, class room aid software, Translation software etc.
Simulation software: It is an abstraction of real world process or problem. It is very helpful in those process and experiments that are very costly, time consuming, impractical to do, wide in scope and resources.
Information worker software: It allows the user to create, handle and manage the information about an individual project within an organization/department. The information handling is doing using different tools such as time management, resource management, analytical, collaborative and documentation tools. Some examples are Accounting, Data Management, Financial Software, Project Management software etc.
Entertainment soft wares include video games, social media software, music/movie, audio video streaming software, screen savers, multimedia software.
Who uses software? Users of software?
Soft ware’s uses are everywhere for kids to adults, men, women, old and young for every age group, common man to celebrity.
According to use, purpose and scope it is use in different field by different people including students, teachers, experts, doctors, scientist, researchers etc